By 1890 the electric power industry was flourishing, and power companies had built thousands of power systems (both direct and alternating current) in the United States and Europe.
These networks were effectively dedicated to providing electric lighting.
During this time a fierce rivalry known as the "War of Currents" emerged between Thomas Edison and George Westinghouse over which form of transmission (direct or alternating current) was superior.8 In 1891, Westinghouse installed the first major power system that was designed to drive a 100 horsepower (75 kW) synchronous electric motor, not just provide electric lighting, at Telluride, Colorado.9 On the other side of the Atlantic, Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky built a 20 kV 176 km three-phase transmission line from Lauffen am Neckar to Frankfurt am Main for the Electrical Engineering Exhibition in Frankfurt.10 In 1895, after a protracted decision-making process, the Adams No.
HVDC had previously been achieved by series-connected direct current generators and motors (the Thury system) although this suffered from serious reliability issues.12 In 1957 Siemens demonstrated the first solid-state rectifier, but it was not until the early 1970s that solid-state devices became the standard in HVDC.13 In recent times, many important developments have come from extending innovations in the ICT field to the power engineering field.For example, the development of computers meant load flow studies could be run more efficiently allowing for much better planning of power systems.
Electric power is the product of two quantities: current and voltage.
These two quantities can vary with respect to time (AC power) or can be kept at constant levels (DC power). Most refrigerators, air conditioners, pumps and industrial machinery use AC power whereas most computers and digital equipment use DC power (the digital devices you plug into the mains typically have an internal or external power adapter to convert from AC to DC power).
AC power has the advantage of being easy to transform between voltages and is able to be generated and utilised by brushless machinery.
So in power systems where generation is distant from the load, it is desirable to step-up (increase) the voltage of power at the generation point and then step-down (decrease) the voltage near the load.Secondly, it is often more economical to install turbines that produce higher voltages than would be used by most appliances, so the ability to easily transform voltages means this mismatch between voltages can be easily managed.14 Solid state devices, which are products of the semiconductor revolution, make it possible to transform DC power to different voltages, build brushless DC machines and convert between AC and DC power. Nevertheless devices utilising solid state technology are often more expensive than their traditional counterparts, so AC power remains in widespread use.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_power_system#Basics_of_electric_power.