The cylinder head is attached to the engine block by numerous bolts or studs. It has several functions. The cylinder head seals the cylinders on the side opposite to the pistons; it contains short ducts (the ports) for intake and exhaust and the associated intake valves that open to let the cylinder be filled with fresh air and exhaust valves that open to allow the combustion gases to escape.However, 2-stroke crankcase scavenged engines connect the gas ports directly to the cylinder wall without poppet valves; the piston controls their opening and occlusion instead.The cylinder head also holds the spark plug in the case of spark ignition engines and the injector for engines that use direct injection.
All CI engines use fuel injection, usually direct injection but some engines instead use indirect injection.
SI engines can use a carburetor or fuel injection as port injection or direct injection.
Most SI engines have a single spark plug per cylinder but some have 2.
A head gasket prevents the gas from leaking between the cylinder head and the engine block.
The opening and closing of the valves is controlled by one or several camshafts and springs?or in some engines?a desmodromic mechanism that uses no springs.The camshaft may press directly the stem of the valve or may act upon a rocker arm, again, either directly or through a pushrod. Engine block seen from below.
The cylinders, oil spray nozzle and half of the main bearings are clearly visible. The crankcase is sealed at the bottom with a sump that collects the falling oil during normal operation to be cycled again.The cavity created between the cylinder block and the sump houses a crankshaft that converts the reciprocating motion of the pistons to rotational motion. The crankshaft is held in place relative to the engine block by main bearings, which allow it to rotate.Bulkheads in the crankcase form a half of every main bearing; the other half is a detachable cap.In some cases a single main bearing deck is used rather than several smaller caps.
A connecting rod is connected to offset sections of the crankshaft (the crankpins) in one end and to the piston in the other end through the gudgeon pin and thus transfers the force and translates the reciprocating motion of the pistons to the circular motion of the crankshaft.
The end of the connecting rod attached to the gudgeon pin is called its small end, and the other end, where it is connected to the crankshaft, the big end.The big end has a detachable half to allow assembly around the crankshaft.It is kept together to the connecting rod by removable bolts. The cylinder head has an intake manifold and an exhaust manifold attached to the corresponding ports.The intake manifold connects to the air filter directly, or to a carburetor when one is present, which is then connected to the air filter.It distributes the air incoming from these devices to the individual cylinders.The exhaust manifold is the first component in the exhaust system.
It collects the exhaust gases from the cylinders and drives it to the following component in the path.
The exhaust system of an ICE may also include a catalytic converter and muffler.The final section in the path of the exhaust gases is the tailpipe.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_engine
Blower scavenged Diagram of uniflow scavenging Using a separate blower avoids many of the shortcomings of crankcase scavenging, at the expense of increased complexity which means a higher cost and an increase in maintenance requirement. An engine of this type uses ports or valves for intake and valves for exhaust, except opposed piston engines, which may also use ports for exhaust. The blower is usually of the Roots-type but other types have been used too. This design is commonplace in CI engines, and has been occasionally used in SI engines. CI engines that use a blower typically use uniflow scavenging.In this design the cylinder wall contains several intake ports placed uniformly spaced along the circumference just above the position that the piston crown reaches when at BDC.An exhaust valve or several like that of 4-stroke engines is used.The final part of the intake manifold is an air sleeve which feeds the intake ports.The intake ports are placed at an horizontal angle to the cylinder wall (I.e: they are in plane of the piston crown) to give a swirl to the incoming charge to improve combustion. The largest reciprocating IC are low speed CI engines of this type; they are used for marine propulsion (see marine diesel engine) or electric power generation and achieve the highest thermal efficiencies among internal combustion engines of any kind. Some Diesel-electric locomotive engines operate on the 2-stroke cycle.
The most powerful of them have a brake power of around 4.5 MW or 6,000 HP.The EMD SD90MAC class of locomotives use a 2-stroke engine.
The comparable class GE AC6000CW whose prime mover has almost the same brake power uses a 4-stroke engine. An example of this type of engine is the Wärtsilä-Sulzer RTA96-C turbocharged 2-stroke Diesel, used in large container ships.It is the most efficient and powerful internal combustion engine in the world with a thermal efficiency over 50%.9101112 For comparison, the most efficient small four-stroke engines are around 43% thermally-efficient (SAE 900648);citation needed size is an advantage for efficiency due to the increase in the ratio of volume to surface area. See the external links for a in-cylinder combustion video in a 2-stroke, optically accessible motorcycle engine.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_engine
While many people engaged in this activity are people who have no training in this area, it does not mean, however, that renewed their cars are worth nothing.Not only that - very often replace an old car in a modern and luxurious car turns out to be really gold investment. No wonder that the number of people interested in restoration of stylish and often very old cars is expanding from year to year..