Water systems of ancient times relied on gravity for the supply of water, using pipes or channels usually made of clay, lead, bamboo, wood, or stone.Hollowed wooden logs wrapped in steel banding were used for plumbing pipes, particularly water mains.
US cities began using hollowed logs in the late 1700s through the 1800s.8 Today, most plumbing supply pipe is made out of steel, copper, and plastic; most waste (also known as "soil")11 out of steel, copper, plastic, and cast iron.11 The straight sections of plumbing systems are called "pipes" or "tubes".
Pipe normally has thicker walls and may be threaded or welded, while tubing is thinner-walled and requires special joining techniques such as brazing, compression fitting, crimping, or for plastics, solvent welding.
These joining techniques are discussed in more detail in the piping and plumbing fittings article. Steeledit Main article: Galvanized pipe Galvanized steel potable water supply and distribution pipes are commonly found with nominal pipe sizes from 3?8 inch (9.5 mm) to 2 inches (51 mm).It is rarely used today for new construction residential plumbing.
Steel pipe has National Pipe Thread (NPT) standard tapered male threads, which connect with female tapered threads on elbows, tees, couplers, valves, and other fittings.
Galvanized steel (often known simply as "galv" or "iron" in the plumbing trade) is relatively expensive, and difficult to work with due to weight and requirement of a pipe threader.
It remains in common use for repair of existing "galv" systems and to satisfy building code non-combustibility requirements typically found in hotels, apartment buildings and other commercial applications.
It is also extremely durable and resistant to mechanical abuse.
Black lacquered steel pipe is the most widely used pipe material for fire sprinklers and natural gas. Most typical single family home systems won't require supply piping larger than 3?4 inch (19 mm) due to expense as well as steel piping's tendency to become obstructed from internal rusting and mineral deposits forming on the inside of the pipe over time once the internal galvanizing zinc coating has degraded.In potable water distribution service, galvanized steel pipe has a service life of about 30 to 50 years, although it is not uncommon for it to be less in geographic areas with corrosive water contaminants. Copperedit Main article: Copper tubing Copper pipe and tubing was widely used for domestic water systems in the latter half of the twentieth century.
Principal types include: Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was produced experimentally in the 19th century but did not become practical to manufacture until 1926, when Waldo Semon of BF Goodrich Co.
PVC pipe began to be manufactured in the 1940s and was in wide use for Drain-Waste-Vent piping during the reconstruction of Germany and Japan following WWII.
In the 1950s, plastics manufacturers in Western Europe and Japan began producing acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) pipe.
CPVC can be used for hot and cold potable water supply.Connections are made with primers and solvent cements as required by code.12 PP ? The material is used primarily in housewares, food packaging, and clinical equipment,13 but since the early 1970s has seen increasing use worldwide for both domestic hot and cold water.
The primary manufacturer of PBT tubing and fittings was driven into bankruptcy by a class-action lawsuit over failures of this system.citation needed However, PB and PBT tubing has since returned to the market and codes, typically first for "exposed locations" such as risers. PEX ? cross-linked polyethylene system with mechanically joined fittings employing barbs, and crimped steel or copper rings. Polytanks ? plastic polyethylene cisterns, underground water tanks, above ground water tanks, are usually made of linear polyethylene suitable as a potable water storage tank, provided in white, black or green. Aqua ? known as PEX-Al-PEX, for its PEX/aluminum sandwich, consisting of aluminum pipe sandwiched between layers of PEX, and connected with modified brass compression fittings.In 2005, a large number of these fittings were recalled.further explanation needed Present-day water-supply systems use a network of high-pressure pumps, and pipes in buildings are now made of copper,16 brass, plastic (particularly cross-linked polyethylene called PEX, which is estimated to be used in 60% of single-family homes17), or other nontoxic material. Due to its toxicity, lead has not been used in modern water-supply piping since the 1930s in the United States,18 although lead was used in plumbing solder for drinking water until it was banned in 1986.18 Drain and vent lines are made of plastic, steel, cast-iron, or lead.1920 Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plumbing#Materials
Payment for plumbing services related to the replacement of old plant cover cooperative, and part of the funds comes from the so-called.
Such failures may concern eg.The creation of a leak in the tap.
Cooperative will cover only the costs of replacing old boilers in the whole block.
Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications..Heating and cooling, waste removal, and potable water delivery are among the most common uses for plumbing however plumbing's not limited to these applications.1 Plumbing utilizes pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures, tanks, and other apparatuses to convey fluids.2 Trades that work with plumbing such as boilermakers, plumbers, and pipefitters are referred to the plumbing trade.In the Developed world plumbing infrastructure is critical for public health and sanitation. The major categories of plumbing systems or subsystems are:10 potable cold and hot tap water supply plumbing drainage venting sewage systems and septic systems with or without hot water heat recycling and graywater recovery and treatment systems Rainwater, surface, and subsurface water drainagerelevant? ? discuss fuel gas piping hydronics, i.e. heating and cooling systems utilizing water to transport thermal energy, as in district heating systems, like for example the New York City steam system. Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plumbing#Systems